Private Messages X. Notifications X. Replies X. Home FAQ Contribute. Pack Planner. Recorded Track of a Hike. Photos of a Hike. HAZ Forum. Google [Bot]. Blue Range Primitive Area.
Arizona's Challenge. Forest Apache - Sitgreaves. Find a Hike by Options. Wilderness Blue Range Primitive Area. Official Route. Blue Range Primitive Area friendofThundergod Foote Creek Trail Steeple Mesa - Grant Creek.
Steeple Trail 73 - Blue Range. Bighorn Sheep. Hannagan Meadow Blue River Loop by arizonaed. If you plan this loop, please look at the Steeple Mesa- Grant Creek trail for additional information. As with any hike, the concern becomes where to find reliable water sources, which is why the hikers detoured at Mud Springs. With a light enough load, ten hours of sunlight, strong legs, and healthy lungs, a hiker can accomplish this hike in three long days. However, this area is rugged and would require an early start at the meadow, perhaps 8 am.
The down hill climb is steep, but manageable; However, the return up to feet is taxing, and if climbed in minimum time, requires a strong steady pace.
Hannagan Meadow Grant/KP Creek Loop, AZ
This of course begs the question: What is the rush? For those who really want to enjoy the scenery, peacefulness, view the abundant wildlife, and solitude the area provides, why not take time to experience the beauty before knocking the dirt from your boots?
Before tightly securing the stove's gas valve and enjoying your final freeze dried delicacy? P Bar Lake, at mile 4, does make for a very nice first night after the 5 to 6 hour long drive from metro Phoenix.
Nothing more than a mud hole in October, this area, at just under feet of elevation provides scenery complete with fall colors of aspen and mixed conifer, deer drinking from the lake early in the morning, and a great respite from the city life. From P Bar, departing from trail 76, follow the trailhead sign south.
Cutting westward across to White Oak Spring, and beginning a drop in elevation, off in the distance, a hiker for the first time, views the valley that the Blue River meanders. About 2 miles past the spring, a small intermittent creek afforded some water before crossing Grant Creek another mile down the trail. Trail 75 actually crosses the river, which for these hikers required a bit of rock hopping, not actually fording through the water.
At this point, from the trailhead, follow FR down 4 miles to the trailhead sign. The Blue River is perennial and offers some excellent views on the river and back up Grant Creek.A second and final Price Monitoring Extension has been activated in this security.
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July Links added to pandemic crisis economic recovery tracker. Latin America is the current epicentre of the pandemic, with the region accounting for than one in three of all deaths each day. This has been fuelled by a surge in Covid fatalities in Brazil, Mexico and several other countries in Central and South America.
A recent surge in India, however, means it has become the most-affected country by daily average deaths. Explore the data here. There are concerns, however, that reported Covid deaths are not capturing the true impact of coronavirus on mortality around the world. In many countries, these excess deaths exceed reported numbers of Covid deaths by large margins. The picture is even starker in the hardest-hit cities and regions.
There are several different ways of comparing excess deaths figures between countries. In absolute numbers, more people than would usually be expected have died in the in the US than in any of the other countries for which recent all-cause mortality data is available. Adjusting for population size, the hardest hit countries are Peru and Ecuador, each of which have seen more than 1, excess deaths per million inhabitants.
The two Latin American countries also have the highest excess percentage — excess deaths expressed as a share of normal deaths for the same period. Follow the changes here using our interactive tool. East Asian countries including South Korea and Vietnam were the first to follow China in implementing widespread containment measures, with much of Europe, North America and Africa taking much longer to bring in tough measures.
The death toll has now passed in 47 European countries. The region currently only accounts for 12 per cent of new daily cases, well down from the peak of more than 80 per cent in March. Coronavirus has spread to all 50 states in the US. More than 7. The data for Chile, China, France, India as well as for the US states of New York and New Jersey have been adjusted to redistribute additional cases or deaths that were added after they occured in proportion to the previous distribution of deaths or cases in that jurisdiction.
It is compiled from data originally produced by official statistics agencies or civil registries in each of the jurisdictions mentioned. The full list of sources is also available on our Github repository. Thank you to the many readers who have already helped us with feedback and suggestions. We continue to incorporate your suggestions and data every day. We will respond to as many people as possible. Corrections: Due to a typographical error, the first paragraph of this story incorrectly stated the number of people who had died from Covid for several hours on April 9.
At the time, that figure should have read 87, Due to a typographical error, a map on this story temporarily showed an incorrect number of deaths from Covid in Italy on May At the time, that figure should have read 31, Get alerts on Coronavirus pandemic when a new story is published.
Manage cookies. Currently reading:.The aim was to identify an appropriate infant pneumococcal vaccination strategy for resource poor countries. Fijian infants received 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PCV in early infancy.
Following a single dose, significant responses were seen for all serotypes post primary series compared with the unvaccinated. By 12 months, differences between 2 and 3 doses persisted for serotype 14 only. Although GMC following 3 doses are higher than after 2 doses, the differences were small.
A single dose may offer some protection for most serotypes. Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumococcus is the most common cause of bacterial pneumonia in children worldwide. It is the leading vaccine preventable cause of serious infection in infants [ 1 ]. An estimated 1. The case fatality rate is particularly high in infants less than 6 months old [ 3 ].
Over 40 serogroups comprising of over ninety serotypes of pneumococcus have been identified [ 4 ]. Within serogroups, serotypes cross-react immunologically, and in some cases this translates into cross-protection. The association of particular serotypes with disease varies according to age, geography, and clinical site. Serotypes 6B, 14, and 19F are important worldwide, while serotype 5 is mainly found in low income countries and 18C is more common in affluent countries [ 5 ].
In contrast, the range of serotypes causing disease in low income countries is wider. Therefore PCV covers a smaller proportion of the pneumococcal serotypes causing disease in children in low income countries compared to more affluent countries.
In the USA, PCV has been shown to be safe and efficacious in a 3 dose primary series with a booster in the second year of life [ 6 ]. Following the introduction of PCV into the US national immunisation schedule in there has been a significant decline in vaccine type VT invasive pneumococcal disease IPD in all ages [ 7 ]. Replacement disease, particularly due to serotype 19A has developed due to capsular switching and clonal expansion [ 8 ].
In some Scandinavian countries and Italy, routine immunisations are given in a 2 dose primary series with a booster at or before the end of the first year of life. When the introduction of PCV into the USA national immunisation schedule was met with a global shortage of vaccine, many children received fewer than the recommended 4 doses of vaccine. The aim of this study was to find a vaccination strategy for resource poor countries in terms of serotype coverage, flexibility, and affordability.
To address these issues, we undertook a Phase II vaccine trial in Fiji to document the safety, immunogenicity and impact on pneumococcal carriage of various pneumococcal vaccination regimens combining 1, 2, or 3 doses of PCV in infancy.
In order to broaden the serotype coverage, the additional benefit of a booster of valent PS vaccine at 12 months of age was also assessed.
This paper compares the geometric mean serotype specific IgG antibody concentrations GMC following the different PCV primary series, and up to 12 months of age. Healthy infants aged between 6 and 8 weeks were eligible for enrolment if they had no significant maternal or perinatal disease history; they resided within 30 minutes of one of the three participating health centres; and the family anticipated living in the study area for 2 years.
Immunogenicity Following One, Two, or Three Doses of the 7-valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine
Infants were excluded if they had: a known allergy to any component of the vaccine; an allergic reaction or anaphylactoid reaction with previous vaccines; a known immunodeficiency disorder; a HIV positive mother; known thrombocytopenia or coagulation disorder; were on immunosuppressive medication; received any blood product since birth; a severe congenital anomaly; a chronic or progressive disease; a seizure disorder; or a history of invasive pneumococcal, meningococcal, or Haemophilus influenzae diseases prior to study entry.
The study was conducted and monitored according to Good Clinical Practice. Written, informed consent was sought from families of children eligible to join the study according to methods approved by the overseeing ethics committees. Infants were enrolled at the time they presented to any one of 3 participating health centres to receive their first dose of the combined Diphtheria-Tetanus-whole cell Pertussis- H.
Randomisation lists were produced by the study statistician and group allocation was concealed in opaque envelopes which study nurses removed sequentially from a box. Eligible infants were stratified by ethnicity and randomised using a computer-generated list of random numbers in blocks of variable size to one of 8 groups to receive 0, 1, 2, or 3 doses of PCV.
The 3 dose group received PCV at 6 weeks window 6—8 weeks of age10 weeks window 8—12 weeks of age and 14 weeks of age window 12—16 weeks of age. Vaccines were given a minimum of 25 days apart. All children received Measles-Rubella vaccine at 12 months of age. Responses to the 12 month 23vPPS vaccination will be presented elsewhere.
All children had blood taken at 18 weeks and 12 months of age. Those children that were not randomized to receive the 12 month 23vPPS additionally had blood taken at 9 months of age. The 12 month blood sample was taken prior to the administration of the 23vPPS, so that the results presented in this manuscript are from the 7 groups that had blood taken in the first year of life.
In brief, microtitre wells were coated with pneumococcal polysaccharide diluted in phosphate buffered saline by incubating at room temperature overnight.To identify subtypes of bvFTD syndrome based on distinctive patterns of atrophy defined by selective vulnerability of specific functional networks targeted in bvFTD, using statistical classification approaches. Patients underwent a multidisciplinary clinical evaluation, including clinical demographics, genetic testing, symptom evaluation, neurological exam, neuropsychological bedside testing, and socioemotional assessments.
Ninety patients underwent structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging at their earliest evaluation at the memory clinic. Principal component and cluster analyses of ROI volumes were used to identify patient clusters with anatomically distinct atrophy patterns.Fairytail AMV Grand Magic Games Light It Up
We evaluated brain morphology and other clinical features including presenting symptoms, neurologic exam signs, neuropsychological performance, rate of dementia progression, and socioemotional function in each patient cluster. Subgroups demonstrated distinct patterns of cognitive, socioemotional, and motor symptoms, as well as genetic compositions and estimated rates of disease progression.
Divergent patterns of vulnerability in specific functional network components make an important contribution to clinical heterogeneity of bvFTD. The data-driven anatomical classification identifies biologically meaningful phenotypes and provides a replicable approach to disambiguate the bvFTD syndrome.
Behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia bvFTD is a clinical syndrome associated with frontal-predominant neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that patterns of regional vulnerability of brain structures that undergo network-specific degeneration may reveal distinct subtypes within the bvFTD syndrome.
A network layout will unfold clinical portfolios characterized by uniquely disrupted functional architecture and will provide specific therapeutic targets for pharmacological and behavioral treatments. We used statistical classification approaches to identify subgroups of patients with different patterns of grey matter loss in specific regions of interest in the SN and SAN, and report distinct symptom profiles of each subgroup.
All patients underwent a complete clinical history, physical examination, neuropsychological evaluation and structural brain imaging. The diagnosis was made at a multidisciplinary consensus meeting for each patient individually.
Informed consent was obtained from all participants or their assigned surrogate decision makers. The study was approved by UCSF institutional review board for human research. The National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center NACC symptom checklist to identify specific behavioral deficits was completed for 94 patients within 12 months of the first presentation to memory clinic.
Patients included in the subsequent volumetric analyses described belowcompleted their neuropsychological, socioemotional and neurological examinations within 90 days of structural brain imaging eMethods. Twenty-four patients underwent autopsy and complete neuropathological assessment eMethods. These included, bilaterally, the temporal poles, gyrus recti, subcallosal areas, anterior cingulate gyri, anterior insulae, basal forebrains, frontal operculae, posterior orbital gyri, and amygdalae.
We estimated the mean grey matter volume of each ROI, for each patient, and used a cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance to derive four clusters of bvFTD patients eMethods.
We mapped each patient onto the Euclidean space based on the 1 st and 2 nd components of the PCA keeping their cluster identity. We modeled the analysis to identify the greatest possible number of distinct clusters of bvFTD patients that remained meaningfully separated when mapped onto dimensional space, with the result that 4-cluster solution was the best fit.
We used a polytomous logistic regression model to determine the stability of the clusters eMethods. PCA, cluster, and logistic regression analyses used MatLab statistical toolbox. Initial clinical assessment within 12 months of the first presentation revealed an MMSE of Race or ethnic group was self-reported.
Scores on the MMSE range from 0 to 30, with higher scores denoting better cognitive function. Visuospatial, sensory, or constitutional deficits were not reported as first symptoms.
Apathy, emotional blunting, disinhibition, obsessive behavior, and altered eating habits, were the next most common behavioral symptoms, respectively Figure 1C.Specifically, APOE appears to impact brain network activity and closely related neuroenergetic functions that may be involved in vulnerability to neurodegenerative pathophysiology.
These effects highlight the salience of further investigation into the diverse influences of APOE. Therefore, this article reviews the interplay between APOE and neuroenergetics and proposes areas for further investigation.
Despite decades of intense research, the causes of Alzheimer's disease AD remain poorly understood and truly effective therapies remain out of reach. AD is expected to become markedly more prevalent over the next half-century Ferri et al. Notably, apoE has known effects on cholesterol transport, inflammation, neurodevelopment, and synaptic plasticity, and study in these contexts clearly represents vital avenues of research.
Mitochondrial energy metabolism and cellular bioenergetics in the brain i. The provision of energy to the synapse is vital for the signaling function of neurons. Despite the limited ATP yield of glycolysis without subsequent oxidative phosphorylation, the temporal dynamics of synaptic signaling make it an important source of energy because of its relative speed. Functional brain imaging has provided a wealth of information on the alterations in neuroenergetics and brain network activity that exist in AD.
Brain energy metabolism is most often studied in human subjects by fluorodeoxyglucose 18 F positron emission tomography FDG PETwhich results in the calculation of the cerebral metabolic rate for glucose CMRgl for each region of interest. The PCC has been consistently noted as a region of particular significance in the metabolic alterations in AD, as it shows very early and comparatively large reductions in CMRgl Minoshima et al.
Via its functional neuroanatomy, the PCC is a key integration node between the medial temporal lobe and medial prefrontal subsystems in the default mode network DMNa brain system that is active when subjects are engaged in internal cognition and unengaged with the external world Buckner et al.
The use of brain imaging to investigate APOE 's effects is rooted in the idea of utilizing APOE -related changes in CMRgl as an endophenotype — a quantitative, genetically-based biomarker associated with disease risk Reiman, While the cellular physiology underlying this association is not well-established, study centers on the role of the GAB2 -encoded Gab2 protein as an activator of the phosphatidyl inositol kinase PI3K pathway.
This result mirrored our earlier study of AD patients, who showed superficial laminar metabolic deficits across the neocortex, and most significantly in the PCC Valla et al. These superficial layers are rich in the dendritic tufts of deeper neurons e. While studies in older populations display mixed results likely due to methodological differences Trachtenberg et al.
Importantly, both FDG PET and CO studies have an inherent limitation in not being able to identify with certainty whether neurons or glial cells particularly astrocytes are the cellular source of the metabolic signal. While the brain contains different cell types with different bioenergetic profiles, the compartmentalization of these bioenergetic processes has often been ignored, in part due to the limited resolution of brain imaging.
For example, the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis proposes that astrocytes are largely glycolytic and, under high energy demand, may provide vital energetic support lactate to neurons which rely more heavily on oxidative phosphorylation Pellerin et al. The CO histochemistry signal is thought to be related primarily to neuronal oxidative metabolism Wong-Riley, ; the FDG PET signal is more heavily debated, but it is hypothesized that astrocytes play the key role Barros et al.
More research is needed to address the relative roles of astrocytes and neurons in neuroenergetic processes, and the respective impact on disease risk.
Additionally, metabolic signal alterations may be related to other factors, including the density of cells or synapses. Notably, mice expressing human apoE4 display decreased dendritic arborization and spine density Dumanis et al.
At 7ft 6ins, this giant from Pakistan aims to be tallest bowler in world
Glucose that is not fully metabolized via oxidative phosphorylation may be converted to lactate, an important and oft-debated brain fuel Nehlig and Coles,or shunted to the pentose phosphate pathway. Previous studies have viewed FDG PET largely as a marker of cell-autonomous energy metabolism and ignored the complication of glycolysis followed or not followed by oxidative phosphorylation; detailed examination of the metabolic fate of glucose may provide even stronger insight.
FDG PET allows for the measurement of only the first step of the metabolism of glucose phosphorylation to glucosephosphate by hexokinase and cannot by itself be used to identify the subsequent metabolic fate of glucose.
While brain imaging can provide a great deal of insight to the effects of APOEan understanding of cellular function and mechanisms conferring risk is essential for any effective therapeutic development. The primary function of apoE in the brain is to traffic cholesterol and other lipids. While it is expressed in several peripheral tissues, apoE is most highly expressed in the liver and brain Elshourbagy et al.When you think about giant fast bowlers, the mind goes to Mohammad Irfan, the Pakistan left-arm pacer.
The 7 ft 1 ins pace bowler became the tallest bowler to play international cricket and he achieved moderate success, taking 83 wickets in 60 ODIs. However, trust Pakistan to not only continue building an assembly line of pace bowlers but also giants. After Mohammad Irfan, there is another pace bowler who is taller than him and is looking to make giant strides in Pakistan cricket. Mudassir Gujjar, who hails from Lahore and is part of the Lahore Qalandars development program in the Pakistan Super League, measures 7 ft and 6 ins tall.
According to other reports, he is 7 ft and 4 ins tall while in one Twitter page, he is listed as 7 ft and 5 ins. If he makes it to the Pakistan cricket team in the near future, he could be the tallest bowler in history to play cricket.
Speaking to the Daily Mail, Mudassir Gujjar said that his height was due to a hormonal condition. I started training seven months ago to become a bowler but because of the Covid pandemic, there is a pause. By the time Mudassir Gujjar left primary school, he was already six feet tall. The tall height proved to be a problem for the Lahore youngster, with custom-made shoes and clothes being prepared specifically for him as ready-made products were not available in his size.
Gujjar could not take the rickshaw to school. For him, his tall height does not allow him to even drive a car. However, it has also had benefits as Mudassir Gujjar believes he is a celebrity and all this has overcome the initial worry his parents had for him.
I was already six foot tall when I was ten and by the time I was in high school, I was above seven feet tall. My parents were worried as I kept growing. They were not able to understand why I was growing taller than my siblings and if it will later cause any troubles for me. People now meet me with a smile, they are in awe of me. It makes me feel good. Home Sports Cricket. At 7ft 6ins, this giant from Pakistan aims to be tallest bowler in world Mudassir Gujjar, who has been picked by Lahore Qalandars in the Pakistan Super League, is 7 ft 6ins tall and he aims to play for the Pakistan national team in the future.
If he plays international cricket for Pakistan, he could be the tallest bowler in the world to have played the sport. Mudassir Gujjar is hopeful that he can play international cricket for Pakistan in the near future and if he does, he will become the tallest bowler in the world to play the game, with a height of 7 ft 6 ins.